Facilities

The nanotech research facility at PSGIAS consists of state-of-art equipments for nano material synthesis, characterization and fabrication. Advanced high tech infrastructure and instruments for research in the field of nanoscience and nano technology are situated at various laboratories.

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Material Characterization

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Contact : Dr. K K Venkataraman, kkv@psgias.ac.in

The JEOL JEM 2100 High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) provides one of the best-in-class solutions to problems in diverse fields ranging from Materials Science to Biology. This microscope enables to view lattice resolution of 0.14 nm and point-to-point resolution of 0.19 nm with the following features:

  • 200 kV acceleration voltage and provision to work with lower voltages according to the sample requirements.
  • Gatan Orious CCD camera (2K x 2K) for image recording.
Operations
  • Bright Field (BF) and Dark Field (DF) imaging,
  • High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM),
  • Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED),
  • Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS),
  • Nano Beam Diffraction (NBD)
  • Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction (CBED).
nanoresearch
TEM Specimen Preparation Facility

The HRTEM facility has a full range of Gatan sample preparation equipments for TEM specimen preparation in addition to the basic facilities such as carbon and/or formware coated copper grids.

Minitom low speed diamond saw

To slice the sample upto 500m

Ultrasonic disc cutter

To make 3mm diameter discs from brittle samples

Disc punch

To get 3mm diameter discs from ductile samples

Disc punch

To bring the thickness of the 3mm discs upto around 80 m

Dimple grinder

To make a dimple in the sample having thickness around 15m at the centre

Precision Ion Polishing System (PIPS) with Liquid Nitrogen cold stage and auto terminator

To get the sample thickness upto 10nm

TEM specimen cross section kit

To prepare cross section samples

Specimen lapping kit

To grind the sample

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Contact : Dr. K K Venkataraman, kkv@psgias.ac.in

The instrument is capable of performing multimode operations especially for analyzing surface characteristics with high precision and resolution. It is possible to carry out experiments in air, vacuum as well as in liquids in controlled environment. The added new generation electronics provides operations even in high-frequency modes.

AFM Imaging: Contact / Semicontact mode
In air and vacuum
  • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
  • Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM)
  • Phase Imaging, Force Modulation
  • Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)
  • Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM)
  • Spreading Resistance Imaging (SRI)
  • Scanning Capacitance Imaging (SCI)
  • Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKM)
  • Heating Stage Operations
  • Adhesion Force Imaging
  • AFM Nanolithography
  • Nanosclerometry with AFM-Nanoindentation
In Liquid
  • Contact AFM/LFM/Adhesion Force Imaging/Force Modulation, Phase Imaging
  • AFM Nanolithography
  • Electrochemical AFM/STM Imaging
Bench-top Scanning Probe Microscope AFM/STM (Nanosurf)

Nanosurf AFM and STM is user friendly, compact instrument used for surface characterization of nano and microscale materials in material science and life science disciplines which supports

  • Contact mode AFM imaging
  • STM imaging
bench
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Scanning electron microscopy (EVO 18) with cryo facility for sensitive samples

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a non-destructive technique that uses an electron beam to analyze surface details down to nano-scale. PSGIAS has EVO 18 model with low vacuum facility and ALTO 1000 cryo attachment for biological, hydroscopic and sensitive samples.

Environmental
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Empyrean, Malvern Panalytical

The 3rd generation Empyrean, Malvern Panalytical multipurpose diffractometer with MultiCore Optics is capable of a large variety of measurements from powders to thin films, from nanomaterials to solid objects - on a single instrument, without much manual intervention.

X-Ray sources: Cu Kα (λ = 1.54 Å) (default) and Mo Kα (λ = 0.71 Å) (on request)

Techniques
  • Rapid powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD): Powder XRD done at standard angular resolutions is rapid and gives precise data with high intensity peaks. Very high angular resolution scans are also possible. Sample type: powder, metallic, thin films, liquid and polymer samples
  • Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) for thin films: Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction is used to find the thickness of thin crystalline films (20-200nm depending on mean atomic number) on polished, flat surfaces. It is possible to deal with multiple films to a limited extent
  • 2D scan to view the diffraction patterns in two dimensional texture analysis using pole figures for metallic samples
Raman
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Faculty In-charge : Dr. P. Biji, pbm@psgias.ac.in

Confocal Raman Microscope with AFM imaging (WiTec alpha 300, Germany) installed at PSG Institute of Advanced Studies is an integrated system with high resolution nanoimaging capability. It can be mainly used for chemical analysis at sub-micrometer scale.

The confocality of the optical design facilitates excellent depth resolution and makes the generation of 3D Raman images and depth profiles easily with a Raman Spectral range of 50 cm-1 - 4000 cm-1. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscope has features such as, Single-point spectra acquisition, Single-point depth profiling and 3D imaging and depth profiling. The advantage of an integrated system with a combination of ultra-high topographic and lateral resolution of AFM with Raman spectroscopy provides a more comprehensive understanding of the samples; not only the chemical information, but also structural and topographic information acquired at the same time and from the same sample area.

The system is integrated with a motorized stage as well as high resolution piezo XYZ mapping Stage with AFM imaging capability. The instrument is equipped with 355 nm and 532 nm lasers as UV Excitation Laser source for PL analysis and VIS Excitation Laser source for Raman analysis respectively. Using optical pre-inspection by means of various illumination and detection techniques (e.g. bright field, dark field, polarization, fluorescence, etc.) the area of interest for the AFM/Raman imaging can be easily determined. The system is capable of measuring the Raman spectra of wide variety of samples including amorphous, crystalline, polymer or liquid/biological samples.

Raman

Laboratories

Faculty In-charge : Prof. Bindu Salim

75 sq. m. of Class 10000 and 170 sq. m. of Class 1000 clean room housing facilities for hybrid renewable energy systems, Flexible electronics, smart textiles and health care devices.

Equipments
Multi source Physical Vapour Deposition system and parylene coater integrated in Glove Box

Custom built for developing composite thin film or multilayer films with co-sputtering and co-evaporation of metals, organics and oxides with substrate heating facility with the following sources integrated in DANVEC glovebox commissioned in class 10000 clean room. Parylene coater provides conformal coating of fabricated devices to protect the device from environmental contamination as well as incorporates biocompatibility for implantable devices.

  • Thermal evaporator
  • E-Beam evaporator
  • DC sputtering
  • RF Sputtering
  • RADAK sources
Parylene coater
  • RF and DC sputtering/pulsed DC sputtering with 3″ target with co-sputtering capability
  • Radak(2 numbers) with Alumina crucible upto 1250 deg.C
  • Thermal (2 numbers) with boat and filament type
  • E-beam with six slots for source material with Thermal and RADAK co-evaporation
  • Parylene coater provides conformal coating
Parametric analyzer with probe station
ICPCVD
  • Rapid Thermal processor
  • Wet processing fumehood
  • Reactive Ion etcher
  • Nano imprint lithography
Faculty In-charge : Dr. K. Mohanta

The Solar Energy at Nanotechnology Research Innovation and Incubation Centre at PSGIAS is on different kinds of solar cells ranging from Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, CZTSSe based thin film solar cells, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, Perovskite Solar Cells, Organic Solar Cells, Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells. The lab is well equipped with a thermal evaporator in laminar flow hood for Metal, Oxides, Organics and Dielectrics evaporation, Glove Box, Spin Coater, UV Source for Photolithography, Solar Simulator and Keithley Source Meters.

MBRAUN Glove Box for Controlled Atmosphere, used for the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar cells, Perovskite Solar Cells, etc
Keithley Source Meters for Current – Voltage Measurement of Solar Cells
Spektrospin Spin Coater – Photoresists & thin films
ABETT Technologies Solar Simulator – Efficiency of Solar Cells
Thermal Evaporator (Box Coater), Hind High Vacuum, Bangalore – Metals, Oxides and Dielectrics Evaporation
Custom made UV Photolithography for Device Patterning
Faculty In-charge : Dr. P. Biji
Keithley High Resistance Meter (Model – 2420 Source meter with 2182A Nanovoltmeter)

is used for the electrical characterization of the conducting/semiconducting thin films. The built-in voltage source simplifies determining the relationship between an insulator’s resistivity and the level of source voltage used. It is well suited for capacitor leakage and insulation resistance measurements, tests of the surface insulation resistance of printed circuit boards, voltage coefficient testing of resistors, gas sensing studies, solar cells studies and diode leakage characterization. Instrument is provided with 2 probe and 4 probe set up for electrical measurements.

High Intensity Ultrasonic Processor (Model-Sonics Vibra cell VC-505)

is used to disperse the materials in a solution phase. The SS velocity horn immersed into the solution produces high frequency vibrations which are used to beak the materials by cavitation process. This process give raise to intense local pressure waves and micro streaming of liquid round the points to collapse. This machine equiped with 500 watts, 20kHz automatic tuning energy monitor, digital wattmeter, microprocessor based programmable LCD screen.

Langmuir-Blodgett Unit (Model – KSV-NIMA LB Medium, Finland)

is used to create, modify and study thin films as monolayer at air-water interface for varied applications. Using this instrument, we can fabricate mono/multilayers of amphiphilic molecules, nanoparticles, nanowires or microparticles that reside at air-water interface. The thin films can be directly transferred onto suitable substrates or device structures.

Spin coating unit (Model-WS-650MZ-23NPP, Laurell Technologies, USA)

is used to coat materials over a substrate of sub micron thickness. Mainly used to make thin films of polymers, colloids, nanomaterials and photoresist etc with uniform thickness. The process involves deposition of small puddle of fluid resin onto the centre of a substrate and then spinning the substrate at high speed. Centripetal acceleration will cause the resin to spread to and eventually off, the edge of the substrate leaving a thin film. The current model is dedicated tabletop device to spin small substrates upto 150 mm diameter with 100-*12000 RPM speed.

Faculty In-charge : Dr. R. Selvakumar

Nanobiotechnology laboratory is involved in Microbial based bio remediation research, biosensor development, synthesis and application of nanomaterials for water purification, and effluent treatment.

To support the research we have the following facilities
  • Phase Contrast Microscope- Carl Zeiss, Germany
  • Lass II type II Biosafety cabinet- Clean Air, India
  • High Speed Refrigerated centrifuge (30K) – Sigma, Germany
  • Electrophoresis units – Genei, India
  • Gel documentation unit – Gelstan 1312 F-Advanced, India
  • Ion selective electrodes for fluoride, nitrate and ammonia detection (Orion, USA)
  • Ion chromatography system- Metrohm, Switzerland
  • Rocking Shaker- ORBITEK ® – LE, India
Instruments
Gel documentation unit – Gelstan 1312 F-Advanced.

Wavelength: 312nm & 360 nm, Epi white illumination, Ethidium Bromide Filter-CCD camera 1D image analysis and colony counting software

Electrophoresis units – Genei, Bangalore

Vertical, Submarine gel electrophoresis units with Power packs

Class II type II Biosafety cabinet- Clean Air, Chennai

Cleanair Class II Type A2 Biohazard Safety Cabinet; Model No: CBS 1200-II-A2 Working Size: W 1200 x D 600 x H 600 mm; Along with Virus Burnout unit; 70% re-circulation and 30% exhaust with incinerations; Particle Retention- 0.3 Micron & above

Phase Contrast Microscope- Carl Zeiss, Germany

Primo Star” with Digital Photo-micrography attachment includes Digital Camera Adapter P95 M37/52×0.75 for “Primo Star” and Digital Camera- Canon 10.0 megapixels

Dry Bath- Rivoteck, India

Temperature range ambient to 110° C controlled to + 0.2° C by solid – state time proportional temperature controller cum digital display

Peristaltic pump- Rivoteck, India

6 – 60ml/h (in I.D.1/O.D.3 tube) during running with flow indicator.

Temperature Controlled Shaker Scigenics, India

ORBITEK ® – LE With Universal Tray and 25 Clamps to hold 250 ml Flasks Temp range: 15 °C to 60 °C)

Rocking Shaker

Rockymax, Tarsons Maximum RPM (< 50), i.e. shacking speed at maximum strokes per minute (Digital). Platform size 30x30cm; timer: 99hrs 99min (Digital).

Refrigerator

230 Ltrs, Double Door, Frost Free LG Model: GL- 241NT5 with stand

Deep freezer (-20 °C)

Cell frost -Model No: BFS 150; Capacity : 148 liters Dimension: 20x24x48 (WxDxH); Temperature: – 17 °C to -24°C (purchase in process)

UV-Photo-catalytic test setup –Indigenous

With Philips UV lamp

ELISA Reader

Purchase in process

Orion ion selective electrodes for fluoride, nitrate and ammonia detection

Thermo fisher-USA Detection of fluoride, nitrate and ammonia in water at ppb to ppt level

Water testing kits

Merck arsenic, nitrate, fluoride detection kits Semi quantitative kits

Incubator (NSW, India)

Model No: ISA-5; W 605 mm x D 605 mm x H 605 mm; 224 Ltrs with aluminium inner chamber Temperature upto 70° C

Autoclave- Equitron, India

Autoclave preset automatic digital model.

Cyclomixer – (Vortex shaker)

Spinix- Maximum speed should be >3000 RPM.

SPINWIN – Microcentrifuge – Fixed

Fixed speed of 6000 RPM / 2000g. Microcentrifuge – 6 places rotor for 1.5ml tubes.

Faculty in-charge : Dr. Geetha Priyadarshini
Fritsch Pulvert-5 High Energy Planetary Ball Mill

Maximum Speed – 400 RPM
Vials – WC, Stainless steel, Zirconia.
Balls (Ø10 mm) – WC, Stainless steel, Zirconia

Controlled Atmosphere Magnesium Melting Furnace

Maximum Temperature – 900°C
Atmosphere – Argon, SF6 and CO2
Casting – Bottom pouring

Stir Casting Facility

Maximum Temperature – 1100°C
Maximum Stirrer speed – 1500 RPM
Composites – Al/SiC, Al/Graphite, Al/MgAl2O4, Al/MgO, Al/TiB2 and Al/B4C

Pit type Melting furnace

Maximum Temperature – 1100°C
Heating Element – Kanthal
Atmosphere – Air

Melting and Heat treatment furnace

Maximum Temperature – 1400°C
Heating Element – Silicon Carbide
Atmosphere – Air

Spray Pyrolysis Set up

Application: Thin oxide films can be coated on substrates by spray pyrolysis method
Specimen temperature: 600° C
Work area: 300 x 300 mm
Spraying rate : 1 liter/hr (max)

Tubular Furnace

Application : Various materials (both nano and bulk) can be prepared under various gas atmospheres
Maximum working Temperature: 1450°C
Sample area: 150 x 70 mm

Faculty In-charge : Dr. Amitava Bhattacharya

Indigenous electrospinning facility with flat plate and rotary drum collectors which can produce nanofibres from various organic and inorganic materials.

  • Flow control: 0.1 – 99.9 ml/h
  • Voltage source: 0 – 50 kV
  • Needle diameter : 50 – 1000 µm
  • Needle to collector distance: variable (1 – 30 cm)
  • Collector type: Plate, Slot, Drum, Conveyor and Disc type
  • Drum/disc rpm: variable (100 – 2000 rpm)
electrospinning
Faculty In-charge : Dr. R. Sivasubramanian
Mbraun Glovebox

Model: Mbraun Unilab (1200/780)
Application: The Glovebox provides a dry and inert atmosphere to carry out air and moisture sensitive reactions.

Newport Low Cost Solar Simulator

Model: 96000, 150W.
Application: Offers the light similar to solar radiation. Used for testing the solar cells efficiency.

Clinical centrifuge

Application: To settle down the Nanoparticles
RPM: 4900
Capacity: 6 x 15 ml

Electrochemical Work Station, Make: BioLogic Science Instrument

Application: Electrochemical work station is a sophiscated instrument consisting of five channels. It consists of a potentiostat with a booster connected for low and high current applications. Using this instrument, we can perform testing on fuel cell and water electrolyser electrodes using techniques like cyclic voltammetry, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and corrosion studies. Charge – discharge measurements of batteries can also be performed using this work station.

Microwave oven

Application : To prepare Nanomaterials
Operating temperature: 220 deg C (max)
Frequency: 2.45 GHz

Faculty In-charge : Dr. P. Biji
Mbraun Glovebox

The Nanosensor Laboratory is equipped with the state-of-art facilities for fabrication, testing and calibration of gas sensors and electrochemical sensors. The sensor group focusses on implementing innovative ideas based on Nanotechnology to realize nanosensor devices for real time applications.

Faculty In-charge : Prof. K K Venkataraman

A cyber-physical system is a mechanism that is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms, integrated with the Internet and its users. These systems will be able to deliver new levels of performance and efficiency in physical processes. Cyber-physical systems engage with the real world in real time and complimented with Internet of Things (IoT) has applications in every engineering domain. Interesting applications of Cyber-Physical systems include Healthcare, Robotics, Automotive, Industry 4.0 applications and many more,

Projects
IoT interface for Nano sensors

The electronics’ interface that handles the sensor signals and convert them for display are enabled for viewing/analysisng through the IoT platform using Bluetooth. The inputs of the system are standardized to handle resistance variation or voltage variation from sensor.

High end ICU ventilator with IoT

High end ICU ventilator has been developed with 15” touch screen, ARM micro controller board, Precision pneumatics and a special weaning algorithm. This unit is now interfaced to outside world through Wi-fi for emergency communication to nurses, analysis on the network and the health of the unit.

Cyber system integrated Ammonia leak detection installation

The project was carried out in a local industry, to reduce the risk factors in isolated areas having large gas installations by detecting the leakages and displaying the status on a continuous basis. Leakage of gas can occur at multiple points in the same installation. Hence multiple sensors are interfaced to detect the leakage and transmit the signals to the base stations located far away. Using microcontrollers, multiple sensor values are received and processed. The processed data is encoded and transmitted to the base using wireless protocol where another microcontroller system decodes it and gives the respective sensor status. The system also provides an audio and visual warning when leakages are detected and since the time taken to detect is low due to high speed processing, the leakage situations are brought under control with minimum or no damage. This project is an economical and efficient method to reduce gas leakage risk in large instlllations using latest IoT technologies and monitoring anywhere in the web.

Industry 4.0 applications